Human Rights Status Report on Bhutan by United States US

Bhutan is a democratic, constitutional monarchy with a population of 
approximately 700,000. The king, Jigme Khesar Namgyel Wangchuck, is the head 
of state, and executive power is vested in the cabinet, headed by Prime Minister, 
Jigme Thinley. The country held its first general election for the National 
Assembly in 2008. A European Union monitoring team reported that the elections 
generally met international standards, although the team noted problems with 
freedom of expression and association during the campaign. Security forces 
reported to civilian authorities.
Principal human rights problems included the regulation of religion and 
discrimination against the Nepali-speaking minority.
Section 1 Respect for the Integrity of the Person, Including Freedom From:
a. Arbitrary or Unlawful Deprivation of Life
There were no reports that the government or its agents committed arbitrary or 
unlawful killings. 
b. Disappearance
During the year there were no reports of politically motivated disappearances. 
The UN Human Rights Council's Working Group on Enforced or Involuntary 
Disappearances reported that it retransmitted five outstanding cases of 
disappearance from 2003 to the government between November 14, 2009 and 
November 12; however, the government had not responded by year's end. The 
cases were first transmitted to the government in 2004. Four cases involved alleged 
members of the illegal United Liberation Front of Assam who were reportedly 
arrested by the country's army and subsequently handed over to the Indian Army. 
The fifth case concerned the publicity secretary of the National Democratic Front 
of Bodoland who was reportedly arrested by the army at a hotel in Thimphu and 
subsequently disappeared.BHUTAN 2
c. Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman, or Degrading Treatment or 
The law prohibits such practices, but the South Asia Human Rights Documentation 
Center (SAHRDC) received anecdotal information from Indian border towns that 
the government detained Maoist leaders and denied them food and medical 
Prison guards used torture on inmates. In a letter to Nebahat Albayrak, the 
chairwoman of the Foreign Affairs Committee of the House of Representatives in 
The Hague, the Bhutanese community in the Netherlands alleged that in the 
country's prisons "…torture is extreme. Torture through mind control devices, 
electric ironing at the back, beating on the soles of the feet, hanging with heads 
down, water boarding, and wheel on the neck is common." The letter cited the case 
of Tek Nath Rizal, who reportedly spent 10 years in prison and alleged that 
beatings "were routinely carried out on a daily basis…and [detainees] were also 
forced to fight against each other….They were tied to a post outside the jail 
compound and left overnight in freezing temperatures." 
Prison and Detention Center Conditions
Inmates and members of civil society reported that prison conditions generally 
were satisfactory, and buildings and installations were in fairly good condition. 
According to the 1982 Prison Act, men and women should be detained separately, 
and juveniles (younger than 18) should be kept separate from adults. NGOs were 
unable to confirm reports that officials did not observe these provisions during the 
Visitors were allowed reasonable access to prisoners and detainees. The 
government allowed visitors from the refugee camps in Nepal access to prisoners 
in Chamgang Prison near Thimphu by providing them with transport to and from 
the India-Bhutan border.
In June the government released a report on prisons to the National Assembly's 
Human Rights Committee. The report's recommendations included: improving
infrastructure and facilities; building separate prison facilities for men, women, and 
juvenile delinquents; reducing overcrowding; establishing vocational training; and 
providing healthcare. While there were reports that prisons, with the exception of 
Chamgang, were in poor condition, there were no reports specifying inadequate 
provisions for sanitation, ventilation, temperature, lighting, basic and emergency BHUTAN 3
medical care, and access to potable water. Authorities allowed prisoners to observe 
religious practices in Chamgang Prison.
The government continued to extend the International Committee of the Red Cross 
(ICRC) prison visits program. During the year the ICRC visited 86 persons held at 
Chamgang Prison. However, the government did not grant other international 
human rights groups prison access. 
d. Arbitrary Arrest or Detention
The law prohibits arbitrary arrest and detention, and the government generally 
observed these prohibitions. However, the SAHRDC stated that its contacts in the 
country reported officials continued to detain 50 members of the Bhutan 
Communist Party Marxist-Leninist-Maoist, who were arrested in connection with 
bombings in 2008. No new information was available regarding their whereabouts 
or whether the government brought official charges against them.
Role of the Police and Security Apparatus
The Royal Bhutan Police (RBP) agency, which reports to the Ministry of Home 
and Cultural Affairs, is responsible for internal security. The Royal Bhutan Army 
is responsible for external threats but also has responsibility for some internal 
security functions, including conducting counterinsurgency operations, guarding 
forests, and providing security for prominent persons. The army and police both 
have procedures in place for conducting internal investigations of alleged officer 
misconduct; official courts of inquiry adjudicate the allegations. The king or other 
senior official makes the final determination of the outcome of a case. There were 
no reports that impunity was a problem.
The government adopted the Royal Bhutan Police Act in 2009 to address human 
rights abuses by police. Under the act a Police Service Board, made up of senior 
police personnel, and a Ministry of Home and Cultural Affairs representative 
investigate cases of abuse. Police officers can face criminal prosecution for human 
rights violations. The RBP has institutional reviews, human rights training for its 
personnel, and accountability procedures. There were no reported incidents in 
which security forces failed to prevent or respond to societal violence.
Arrest Procedures and Treatment While in DetentionBHUTAN 4
Under the law police may not arrest a person without a warrant, and in practice 
police generally respected the law. According to the law authorities must issue an 
immediate statement of charges and engage in reasonable efforts to inform the 
family of the accused. The law requires authorities to bring an arrested person 
before a court within 24 hours, exclusive of travel time from the place of arrest. 
Bail is available depending on the severity of charges and the suspect's criminal 
record, flight risk, and potential threat to the public. The law provides for prompt 
access to a lawyer provided by the state.
e. Denial of Fair Public Trial
The Judiciary Services Act establishes the formal separation of the judiciary from 
the executive, setting professional standards for judges and other judicial service 
personnel. In practice the judiciary generally enforced the right to a fair trial. The 
National Judicial Commission (NJC) oversees the judiciary. 
On February 21, according to the Annual Report for the Judiciary of the Kingdom, 
the Supreme Court was established with the appointment of the chief justice and 
three associate justices. The Supreme Court oversees the interpretation and 
application of the constitution and serves as the highest appellate authority. The 
NJC nominates, and the king confirms, judges to the high court and 20 district 
court justices. The king may remove, suspend, or censure judges only at the 
request of the NJC. 
Trial Procedures
The law stipulates that defendants must receive fair and speedy trials, and the 
government generally respected this right in practice. A preliminary hearing must 
be convened within 10 days of registration of a criminal matter with the 
appropriate court. Before registering any plea, courts must determine whether an 
accused is mentally sound and understands the consequences of entering a plea. 
Defendants enjoy a presumption of innocence, and cases must be proved beyond a 
reasonable doubt to obtain convictions. There is no trial by jury. Punishments 
include imprisonment, probation, fines, or a requirement for restitution of loss. 
Defendants have the right to appeal to the High Court and may make a final appeal 
to the king, who traditionally delegates the decision to the Royal Advisory 
Council. Trials are conducted publicly, except for cases involving family law and 
juveniles. The law grants defendants and their attorneys access to state evidence; 
however, only the court can determine if there is a need to question witnesses, after 
which the prosecutor and defendants are allowed to conduct cross-examinations. BHUTAN 5
Courts try criminal and civil cases under both customary and the legal code. Stateappointed Office of Legal Affairs (OLA) prosecutors are responsible for filing 
charges and prosecuting cases for offenses against the state. In other cases relevant 
organizations or government departments file charges and conduct prosecutions. 
Although most litigants represented themselves before the court, the law provides 
for the right to representation in criminal cases, including provision of counsel for 
defendants who cannot afford representation. In practice there were no known 
instances of the government providing free legal counsel to political opponents, 
and many citizens who were unable to afford representation did not receive 
professional legal assistance. The law states that defendants may choose legal 
representation from a list of government licensed advocates, and the government 
promoted the use of judiciary websites for legal information as a means of offering 
self-help to defendants. The OLA stated that most defendants sought professional 
legal assistance only in serious criminal cases. There were no reports that any 
groups were denied the right to trial.
Political Prisoners and Detainees
The Society for Threatened Peoples reported to the UN Human Rights Council that 
at least 200 political prisoners remained imprisoned in the country. According to 
media reports, on December 9, expatriates from Europe and the Western 
Hemisphere submitted petitions to various human rights organizations and 
representatives, including the UN secretary general, seeking assistance in obtaining 
the release of hundreds of political prisoners, naming 89 prisoners specifically. The 
petitioners alleged that some political prisoners were held incommunicado and that 
international observers were denied access to them.
Civil Judicial Procedures and Remedies
The Civil and Criminal Procedure Code (CCPC) governs the resolution of criminal 
matters and most civil matters. The CCPC states that a suit may be initiated by a 
litigant or a member of the litigant's family. Traditional Buddhist or Hindu law 
governs questions of family law. Village leaders adjudicate minor offenses.
f. Arbitrary Interference with Privacy, Family, Home, or 
CorrespondenceBHUTAN 6
The constitution states that persons "shall not be subjected to arbitrary or unlawful 
interference with his or her privacy, family, home, or correspondence nor to 
unlawful attacks on the person's honor and reputation," and the government 
generally respected these prohibitions.
While the law requires citizens to adhere to a national dress code in government 
buildings during daylight hours, NGOs reported that enforcement of this regulation 
varied by district and was relaxed due to international pressure. As a result the 
government allowed individuals to wear casual dress in public.
The law bars non-Bhutanese individuals who are married to citizens from 
promoting a religion other than Buddhism. The 1980 Marriage Act also states that 
a Bhutanese married to a non-Bhutanese shall not be entitled to facilities enjoyed 
by other citizens, including the distribution of land, cash loans, and education or 
training abroad.
Section 2 Respect for Civil Liberties, Including:
a. Freedom of Speech and Press
The law provides for freedom of speech and of the press; but the government 
sometimes did not respect these rights in practice. The government restricted the 
ownership of media outlets and licensing of journalists. 
A law adopted in 1992 prohibits criticism of the king and the political system, but 
criticism of the government was allowed in some instances, including postings of 
criticism on government Web sites.
According to Freedom House's annual report, the media law adopted in 2006 led to 
the establishment of two independent radio stations, but did not provide specific 
protections for journalists or guarantee freedom of information. Two independent 
weeklies and a state-owned newspaper generally published articles favorable to the 
government and covered criticism of the government only occasionally. 
Unlike in previous years, no journalists were arrested. 
Shanti Ram Acharya, a journalist working for the Bhutan Reporter, a monthly 
periodical published by refugees in Nepal, was sentenced to seven and a half years 
in prison in January 2009. He had been arrested for alleged subversive activities BHUTAN 7
(photographing an army outpost) while visiting the country and remained 
incarcerated at year's end.
Media sources suggested that while there is commitment at the highest levels to 
provide the media with information, some media professionals continued to find it 
difficult to get access to information from bureaucrats and public officials.
Internet Freedom
Individuals and groups generally were permitted to engage in peaceful expression 
of views via the Internet, although there were some reports of government 
restrictions. The government continued to monitor material on the Internet and 
blocked what it deemed pornographic. According to the International 
Telecommunication Union, there were approximately 30,000 Internet users (0.4 
percent of the population) during the year.
Academic Freedom and Cultural Events
There were government restrictions on academic freedom or cultural events. 
According to dissident groups, in predominantly Nepali-speaking areas in the 
southern portion of the country, local schools that were seized by the government 
in the early 1990s now lay in ruins. The few children who were able to attend 
public schools were forced to learn in the government-imposed language, practice 
the official religion, and follow its traditions. Unverified reports during the year, 
however, indicated that some relaxation in prohibitions against Nepali-language 
education has occurred. 
b. Freedom of Peaceful Assembly and Association
Freedom of Assembly
The constitution provides for the right to assemble peacefully; however, the 
government restricted this right. All protesters must first obtain government 
approval before staging public demonstrations. NGOs reported that no 
demonstrations occurred during the reporting period. According to Freedom 
House, in recent years security forces have arrested Southern Bhutanese refugees 
based in Nepal who entered the country to demonstrate for the right to return 
Freedom of AssociationBHUTAN 8
The constitution provides for freedom of association, and the government 
permitted the registration of some political parties and organizations but only for 
groups "not harmful to the peace and unity of the country." The government 
regarded political parties organized by ethnic Nepalese living in refugee camps as 
illegal, terrorist, and antinational in nature. According to Freedom House, the 
government did not allow NGOs that work on human rights, refugee issues, or 
other sensitive matters to operate legally and prohibits independent trade unions 
(see sections 5 and 7). The 2007 Civil Society Organization Act requires all new 
NGOs to register with the government. 
The Human Rights Organization of Nepal (HURON) reported that a Bhutanese 
official in October prevented the shipment of a ballot box to India during the 
Tibetan government-in-exile's general election being conducted for the 1,298 
Tibetan refugees residing in Bhutan. 
c. Freedom of Religion
For a complete description of religious freedom, please see the 2010 International 
Religious Freedom Report at
d. Freedom of Movement, Internally Displaced Persons, Protection of 
Refugees, and Stateless Persons
The law provides for freedom of movement within the country, foreign travel, 
emigration, and repatriation, but the government limited freedom of movement and 
repatriation in practice. 
The law does not address forced exile, but the government forced the majority of 
its Nepali-speaking population to leave the country in the early 1990s following a 
series of steps taken during the 1970s and 1980s to deprive the Nepali-speaking 
population of their citizenship. There were no reported cases of forced exile during 
the year. 
As of December 31, 72,242 Bhutanese refugees were living in refugee camps in 
Nepal administered by the Office of the UN High Commissioner for Refugees 
(UNHCR). Resettlement of the refugees was announced by the government of 
Nepal in November 2007. As of December 31, 41,462 Bhutanese refugees had 
been resettled in foreign countries, with 35,279 of those resettled in the United 
States. BHUTAN 9
The government continued to criticize the UNHCR for its failure to screen 
individuals who entered camps in Nepal in the early 1990s to determine whether 
they were genuine citizens of the country. The government maintained that 
individuals who entered the camps before the establishment of screening and 
registration mechanisms were not citizens and were using the camps as a base for 
terrorist activities against the country.
The Druk National Congress, a political organization operating in exile, reported 
that 30-year-old Bhim Bhadur Rai from Beldangi Refugee camp in Nepal was 
arrested on May 5, at the Indo-Bhutan border. 
Protection of Refugees
The country was not a party to the 1951 Convention relating to the Status of 
Refugees or the 1967 Protocol relating to the Status of Refugees. Its laws do not 
provide for the granting of asylum or refugee status, and the government has not 
established a system for providing protection to refugees.
The Central Tibetan Administration reported that there were approximately 1,298 
Tibetan refugees in seven settlements in Bhutan. Many Tibetan refugees in the past 
have accepted Bhutanese citizenship and many continued to seek citizenship. 
Tibetan refugees were permitted to travel to India freely but often could not obtain 
security clearances for government jobs, enroll in higher education, or obtain 
licenses to run private businesses.
Stateless Persons
Implementation of a nationwide government census in 1985 resulted in the 
denationalization of many ethnic Nepalese in the country because land ownership 
documents from 1958 were required to receive citizenship. The census was 
repeated in 1988-89 in the southern districts, and those who lost citizenship in 
1985 were at that time permitted to reapply for citizenship provided they met 
certain conditions. The government then labeled as illegal immigrants those who 
could not meet the new, more stringent citizenship requirements. Beginning in 
1990 the government expelled large numbers of ethnic Nepalese individuals under 
the 1985 citizenship law, many of whom resided in refugee camps in Nepal.
The law provides for revocation of the citizenship of any naturalized citizen who 
"has shown by act or speech to be disloyal in any manner whatsoever to the King, BHUTAN 10
country, and people." The Ministry of Home Affairs later declared that any 
nationals leaving the country to assist "anti-nationals," and the families of such 
persons, would forfeit their citizenship. The law permits reapplication for 
citizenship after a two-year probationary period. The government reissues 
citizenship upon successful completion of the probation period and a finding that 
the person in question is not responsible for any act against the government. There 
were no reports of successful application of this provision.
According to the 2010 UNHCR country operations profile for Nepal, there were 
approximately 89,000 Nepali-speaking Bhutanese refugees living in Nepal who did 
not have citizenship in any country and were thereby rendered stateless. According 
to the UNHCR, most of the refugees who arrived in Nepal between 1990 and 1993 
were recognized on a prima facie basis. A large-scale resettlement program was 
initiated in 2007. As of September 2009, more than 78,000 refugees had expressed 
their interest in resettlement, and over 20,000 had left the camps in Nepal for third 
Section 3 Respect for Political Rights: The Right of Citizens to Change Their 
The country completed a successful transition from an absolute hereditary 
monarchy to a constitutional monarchy with a bicameral elected parliament in 
2008, marking the final step in the transition to a parliamentary democracy. The 
law provides limited rights for changing the government, and it provides for a 
separation of powers. In February the country held a human rights workshop with 
government representatives from different institutions. 
Elections and Political Participation
In 2008 voters elected the country's first National Assembly, the lower house of the 
parliament. The ruling Druk Phensum Tshogpa (DPT) party won 45 of 47 seats. 
Human Rights Watch reported that the government excluded 13 percent of the 
Nepali-speaking population from voting because they were considered "nonnationals" in the 2005 census. Nonetheless, nine Nepali-speaking candidates were 
elected. International monitors reported that generally the elections were free and 
fair, met international standards for democratic elections, and formed a solid 
foundation for a credible democracy. There were no reports of irregularities during 
the election process, including restrictions on access to media, ballot stuffing, 
fraud, campaigning at polling stations, lack of ballot secrecy, family voting, 
intimidation, or violence.BHUTAN 11
In 2007 the government began allowing political parties to register under the terms 
of a draft constitution. Three parties registered with the Election Commission, 
which disqualified the Bhutan People's United Party (BPUP) for "failing to prove 
its credibility" as a national political party. The Election Commission indicated that 
BPUP candidates did not meet the commission's education requirements. The 
Election Act specifies that candidates for parliament must have earned at least a 
bachelor's degree to run for office. The government took no action in response to 
the party's appeal of the decision. 
Other parties, such as the Druk National Congress, established in 1994, continued 
to claim that the government denied independent parties the ability to operate 
effectively. Both parties that participated in the 2008 national elections--the ruling 
DPT party and opposing People's Democratic Party (PDP)--had ties to the royal 
family. The government regarded political parties organized by ethnic Nepalese 
living in refugee camps as illegal, terrorist, and antinational in nature. These 
parties, which sought repatriation of refugees and democratic reforms, were unable 
to conduct activities inside the country.
There are 25 members of the National Council, the upper house of parliament; the 
king appoints five members and the remaining members are elected. In 2007 
elections for the National Council, voters elected three women, two Nepali 
speakers, one Hindu, and one Christian. International monitors judged the elections 
free and fair. 
Women constituted 26 percent of civil service employees and held more than 30 
percent of positions at the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. There were no women on 
the High Court, although there was one female judge in a district court. Women in 
parliament increased from 9 percent in 2005 to 14 percent during the year. There 
was no provision for allocating a set number or percentage of parliamentary seats 
for women or members of minority groups. 
In September 2009 the government passed the Local Governments Act, which 
established 20 local governments, one for each dzongkhags (province). The act 
calls upon the local governments to provide social and economic services and to 
promote the development and well-being of constituents. The act does not provide 
these governments with legislative powers but grants them the authority to collect 
taxes, make rules and regulations consistent with national legislation, and receive 
funds from the national government to fulfill their duties. Bhutanese officials 
confirmed in October that parliament's inability to form a consensus around the BHUTAN 12
drawing of district lines continued to delay local elections. A date for local 
elections had not been scheduled by year's end. 
Section 4 Official Corruption and Government Transparency
The law provides criminal penalties for official corruption, and the government 
generally implemented these laws effectively. The government took an active role 
in addressing the issue through the public accounts committee in the National 
Assembly and the Royal Audit Authority, which monitored the use of government 
funds. The government's Anti-Corruption Commission (ACC) is authorized to 
investigate cases of official corruption and allows citizens to post information on 
its Web site regarding corrupt practices. The National Council adopted the AntiCorruption Amendment Bill of 2010 in September and the National Assembly 
passed the bill on December 3.
In October the ACC presented the Gap Analysis Report to the government, which 
described the steps the government needed to take to comply with the UN 
Convention Against Corruption. According to a November 2009 article in the 
Bhutan Observer, 428 complaints of corruption were made during the year to the 
There is no law providing public access to government information, but NGOs 
reported that the government regularly provided unclassified information upon 
Section 5 Governmental Attitude Regarding International and Nongovernmental 
Investigation of Alleged Violations of Human Rights
There were no independent human rights organizations operating in the country. 
The government regarded human rights groups established by the exiled Nepalispeaking minority as political organizations and did not permit them to operate. 
The ICRC was the only human rights monitoring group officially operating in the 
country. According to international NGOs, local civil society organizations 
practiced self-censorship to avoid conflict with the government, and the majority 
of them focused on women's rights or environmental issues. 
Various civil society organizations functioned locally and informally. The Civil 
Society Organization (CSO) Authority was established by the Civil Society Act of 
Bhutan 2007. On January 18, the CSO Authority received staffing approval for its 
secretariat. The government mandated the CSO Authority to oversee the BHUTAN 13
accountability and transparency of civil society operations. Critics, including the 
Committee on the Rights of the Child, stated that they feared the CSO Act could 
result in restrictions on, rather than promotion of, independent civil society 
On February 10, the Committee on Human Rights in the National Assembly 
conducted a workshop on human rights awareness that included participants from 
law enforcement, the judiciary, the ACC, National Commission for Women 
Children, and UN agencies. 
Section 6 Discrimination, Societal Abuses, and Trafficking in Persons
The constitution prohibits discrimination on the basis of race, sex, disability, 
language, or social status.
The law contains a clear definition of criminal sexual assault and specifies 
penalties. In cases of rape involving minors, sentences range from five to 17 years 
in prison. In extreme cases a rapist may be imprisoned for life. There was no 
evidence that rape or spousal abuse were extensive problems, but NGOs reported 
that many women did not report rape because of cultural taboos or because they 
were unaware of their rights. Spousal rape is illegal. 
The law protects against domestic violence. Penalties against offenders of domestic 
violence range from a jail sentence of a minimum of one month to a maximum of 
three years. Offenders are also fined a daily minimum national wage of 90 days. 
According to the Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women 
(CEDAW), the government commissioned a report on violence against women, set 
up mobile police stations, trained police on gender issues, and allowed civil society 
groups to undertake further efforts, including the opening of a crisis and 
rehabilitation center. The CEDAW committee expressed concern over reports of 
violence against women by their spouses or other family members and at work.
The Labor Employment Act has specific provisions to address sexual harassment 
in the workplace. The CEDAW expressed concern about the large number of 
reported sexual harassment cases in the workplace. 
The country has no legal restrictions regarding the number, spacing, or timing of 
children, and there were no reports of coercion regarding reproduction. According BHUTAN 14
to World Health Organization (WHO) estimates, the maternal mortality ratio in 
2008 was 200 deaths per 100,000 live births. WHO's figures from 2005 showed 
that skilled personnel attended 51 percent of births. In 2000 WHO stated that 
contraceptive prevalence was at 31 percent and information about, and access to, 
contraception was readily available. NGOs reported that women faced little overt 
discrimination and had equal access to health care, education, and public services, 
including for HIV/AIDS treatment and services. 
The law covers questions related to family issues, including divorce, child custody, 
and inheritance. The minimum age of marriage for women is 18. Polygamy is 
allowed provided the first wife gives her permission. Polyandry is permitted but 
was rare. Marriages were arranged by the marriage partners themselves or by their 
parents. The law requires registration of all marriages with the government. 
Women were accorded respect in the traditions of most ethnic groups and 
participated relatively freely in the social and economic life of the country. 
Inheritance law provides for equal inheritance for sons and daughters, but 
traditional inheritance practices, which varied among ethnic groups, may be 
observed if the heirs choose to forgo legal challenges. Traditional inheritance laws 
for the majority of Buddhists stipulate that daughters inherit family land. As a 
result, 60 percent of rural women held land registration titles, accounting for the 
large number of women who owned shops and businesses. Tradition dictates that 
the most capable member of the family runs the household, which often resulted in 
the mother or eldest daughter holding this position. Within the household men and 
women were relatively equal. Employers generally paid women in unskilled jobs 
slightly less than men in the same positions. According to the government's 2009 
Labor Force Survey Report, 46 percent of the country's workforce was female. 
Dowries were not customary in the country.
The law mandates that the government take appropriate measures to eliminate all 
forms of discrimination and exploitation of women, including trafficking, abuse, 
violence, harassment, and intimidation, at work and at home, and generally the law 
was enforced. The CEDAW reviewed the country during 2009 and commended the 
government for establishing the National Commission on Women and Children 
(NCWC) Plan of Action for Gender and recognizing gender in the five-year plan of 
the Gross National Happiness Commission. The CEDAW expressed concerns, 
however, that the constitution does not adequately define discrimination to include 
both direct and indirect forms and noted that the government failed to adopt 
implementation legislation for its international treaty obligations related to BHUTAN 15
women's rights or to provide adequate resources to the NCWC to allow it to 
operate effectively.
The National Women's Association, one of the few registered NGOs, tried to
improve women's living standards and socioeconomic status. The NCWC actively 
defended the rights of women and children during the year, although CEDAW 
questioned the limited resources of the NCWC and its potential lack of 
independence from government influence.
Under the constitution only children whose parents are both citizens become 
citizens at birth. According to the Bhutanese Refugee Support Group, existing 
citizenship laws contained inadequate provisions for a child to acquire nationality 
at birth, and persons who are designated as "non-nationals" (for example, ethnic 
Nepalese Bhutanese) are rendered essentially stateless (see section 2.d.). Births in 
remote areas are less likely to be registered. NGOs asserted births of children to 
nonregistered ethnic Nepalese Bhutanese may not be registered. The failure of 
timely birth registration had negative consequences and made it difficult for some 
children to access educational and other services.
The government provides 11 years of universal, free education to children who are 
recognized as citizens. Education is not compulsory, and some schools charged 
fees. In March the Ministry of Education reported that girls comprised 
approximately 50 percent of the enrollment in schools. The ministry's report stated 
that approximately 37 percent of university students were female and 45 percent of 
the students receiving scholarships to study abroad were female.
There is no law barring Nepali-speaking children from attending school, but there 
were unconfirmed reports that the government denied "no objection certificates," 
which were necessary for admission to schools, to some Nepali-speaking children.
Child abuse was rare. Although corporal punishment is banned in schools, there 
were some incidents in schools and monasteries.
The country is not a party to the 1980 Hague Convention on the Civil Aspects of 
International Child Abduction. 
Anti-SemitismBHUTAN 16
The country does not have a Jewish population, and there were no reports of antiSemitic acts.
Trafficking in Persons
During the year there were no reports that persons were trafficked to, from, or 
within the country.
Persons with Disabilities
The law does not specifically protect the rights of citizens with disabilities, but it 
does direct the government to try to provide security in the "event of sickness and 
disability." There was no evidence of official discrimination against persons with 
disabilities in matters of employment, education, access to health care, or the 
provision of other state services. The law stipulates that new buildings must be 
constructed to allow access for persons with disabilities, but the government did 
not enforce the law consistently. Under the Disability Prevention and 
Rehabilitation Program, the government seeks to provide medical and vocational 
rehabilitation for persons with all types of disabilities, promote integration of 
children with disabilities into schools, and foster community awareness and social 
integration. The approximately 22,000 (3.4 percent of the population according to 
the most recent estimates released in 2005) persons with physical disabilities living 
in the country lacked necessary infrastructure. The Royal Government of Bhutan 
does not have a government agency specifically responsible for protecting the 
rights of persons with disabilities.
There are three special education institutes for students with disabilities, including 
the National Institute for the Disabled in Khaling, which educates visually 
impaired children, and an education resource unit for the hearing impaired in Paro. 
There also were special education facilities in Thimphu designed to meet the needs 
of children who have physical and mental disabilities. Although there were no 
government-sponsored social welfare services available for persons with 
disabilities, the National Pension and Provident Fund granted benefits to persons 
with disabilities.
National/Racial/Ethnic Minorities
Organizations representing exiled Nepali-speaking Bhutanese claimed they were 
subjected to discrimination and prejudice in employment, but the government 
stated they were proportionally represented in civil service and government jobs. BHUTAN 17
English and Dzongkha languages are the mediums of instruction taught in all 
schools. No instruction in Nepali as a second language was required or offered, 
although there were unconfirmed reports that some instruction in Nepali may have 
been permitted during the year. The Committee on the Rights of the Child 
expressed concern about the rights of minority children, specifically the Nepalispeaking minority, to take part in their culture, practice their religion, or use their 
Societal Abuses, Discrimination, and Acts of Violence Based on Sexual 
Orientation and Gender Identity
Same-sex relationships are illegal in the country and punishable as a petty 
misdemeanor with a prison sentence ranging from one month to one year. Under 
Article 213 in Chapter 14 of the Penal Code, a person can be imprisoned for as 
long as one year for engaging in "sodomy or any other sexual conduct that is 
against the order of nature." There were, however, no reported cases of such 
Other Societal Violence or Discrimination
Different observers assessed varying levels of stigma associated with HIV/AIDS. 
Persons with HIV/AIDS received free medical and counseling services, and the 
government maintained programs meant to prevent discrimination. 
Section 7 Worker Rights
a. The Right of Association
The law allows workers to form workers' associations but does not allow for the 
formation of unions or for strikes. The law allows employees to form an 
association in one workplace if at least 12 employees join the association. The law
was first tested in 2008 when national telecommunications employees decided to 
form an association after they accused management and the government of 
discriminatory behavior in promotions. 
The Human Rights Organization of Bhutan (HUROB) stated that there is a drivers' 
association and a contractors' association. Associations were subject to government 
interference. For example, in July drivers working for Hindustan Construction 
Company in a hydroelectricity project called a strike to demand a higher salary. BHUTAN 18
During the strike Labor Minister Dorji Wangdi threatened to inform the police that 
their actions were prohibited. 
b. The Right to Organize and Bargain Collectively
The law does not authorize collective bargaining. The 2007 Labor and 
Employment Act grants workers the right to pursue litigation. 
There are no export processing zones.
c. Prohibition of Forced or Compulsory Labor
The government prohibits forced or compulsory labor and there were no confirmed 
reports that forced or compulsory labor occurred during the reporting period.
d. Prohibition of Child Labor and Minimum Age for Employment
According to the law, the minimum age of employment is 18 years, but child labor 
remained prevalent. However, the law allows for employment of children between 
the ages of 13 and 17 in environments that will not be harmful to their health or 
safety. Children younger than 18 often performed agricultural and construction 
work, completed chores on family farms, or worked in shops and restaurants after 
school and during holidays. Girls were employed primarily as domestic workers, 
where they were vulnerable to abuse and exploitation. UNICEF estimated that 19 
percent of children between five and 14 years of age were child laborers. Labor 
inspectors operating under the Ministry of Labor and Human Resources enforced 
child labor laws sporadically. 
e. Acceptable Conditions of Work
The law addresses issues such as minimum wage, sexual harassment, workers' 
associations, acceptable forms of child labor, and labor inspection regulations. 
According to a news article on September 27, the national minimum wage rate was 
Nu 3,000 ($67) per month, and the labor minister stated that half the country's 
workers earned more than the minimum wage. The workday was defined as eight 
hours with a one-hour lunch break, and employers must grant regular days of rest. 
Work in excess of this must be paid at 1.5 times the normal rate.
All citizens were entitled to free medical care. The government transported persons 
who could not receive adequate care in the country to other countries (usually BHUTAN 19
India) for treatment. Workers were eligible for compensation in the case of partial 
or total disability, and in the event of death, their families were entitled to 
compensation. Existing labor regulations did not grant workers the right to leave 
work situations that endangered their health and safety without jeopardizing their 
continued employment. (US State Dept)

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